The Kingdom of Norway, a constitutional monarchy located in northwestern Europe, has an area of 150,000 sq. mi. (388,500 sq. km.) including the island territories of Spitzbergen (Svalbard) and Jan Mayen, and a population of 4.46 million. Capital: Osio. The diversified economic base of Norway includes shipping, fishing, forestry, agriculture and manufacturing. Nonferrous metals, paper and paperboard, paper pulp, iron, steel and oil are exported. ,A United Norwegian kingdom was established in the 9th century, the era of the indomitable Norse Vikings who ranged far and wide, visiting the coasts of northwestern Europe, the Mediterranean, Greenland and North America. In the 13th century, the Norse kingdom was united briefly with Sweden, then passed, through the Union of Kalmar, 1397, to the rule of Denmark which was maintained until 1814. In 1814, Norway fell again under the rule of Sweden. The union lasted until 1905 when the Norwegian Parliament arranged a peaceful separation and invited a Danish prince (King Haakon VII) to occupy the throne of an independent kingdom of Norway.,, Rulers:,,, ,Christian V, 1670-1699,, ,Frederik IV, 1699-1730,, ,Christian VI, 1730-1746,, ,Frederik V, 1746-1766,, ,Christian VII, 1766-1808,, ,Frederik VI, 1808-1814,, ,Carl XIII, 1814-1818,, ,Carl XIV Johan, 1818-1844,, ,Oscar I, 1844-1859,, ,Carl XV, 1859-1872,, ,Oscar II, 1872-1905,, ,Haakon VII, 1905-1957,, ,Olav V, 1957-1991,, ,Harald V, 1991-,, Monetary System:,,, ,1 Speciedaler = 96 Skilling to 1816,, ,1 Speciedaler = 120 Skilling, 1816-1873,, ,1 Krone = 100 Ore, 1873-,,