The Republic of Kazakhstan is bordered to the west by the Caspian Sea and Russia, to the north by Russia, in the east by the Peoples Republic of China, and in the south by Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. It has an area of 1,049,155 sq. mi. (2,717,300 sq. km.) and a population of 16.93 million. Capital: Astana. The country is rich in mineral resources including coal, lead, zinc, and manganese with huge oil and natural gas reserves. Agriculture is important also non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy engineering, and chemical industries are leaders in its economy. ,The Kazakhs are a branch of the Turkic peoples which led the nomadic life of herdsman until World War I. In the 13th century they come under Genghis Khan?s eldest son Juji and later became a part of the Golden Horde, a western Mongol empire. Around the beginning of the 16th century they were divided into 3 confederacies, known as zhuz or hordes, in the steppes of Turkistan. At the end of the 17th century an incursion by the Kalmucks, a remnant of the Oirat Mongol confederacy, facilitated Russian penetration. Resistance to Russian settlements varied throughout the 1800?s, but by 1900 over 100 million acres was declared Czarist state property and used for a planned peasant colonization. In 1916 the Czarist government ordered mobilization of all males, between 19 and 43 for auxiliary service. The Kazakhs rose in defiance which led the governor general of Turkistan to send troops against the rebels. Shortly after the Russian revolution, Kazakh nationalists asked for full autonomy. The Communists coup d?etat of November 1917 led to civil war. In 1919-20 the Red army defeated the ?White? Russian forces and occupied Kazakhstan and fought against the Nationalist government formed by Ali Khan Bukey Khan. The Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on August 26, 1920 within the R.S.F.S.R. Russian and Ukrainian colonization continued. On December 5, 1936, Kazakhstan qualified for full status as an S.S.R. and held its first congress in 1937. Independence was declared on December 16, 1991 and the new Republic joined the C.I.S.,, Monetary System:,,, ,1 Tenge = 100 Tyin = 500 Rubles (Russian), 1993-,, 144,KENYA,KE.gif,The Republic of Kenya, located on the east coast of central Africa, has an area of 224,961 sq. mi. (582,646 sq. km.) and a population of 30.34 million. Capital: Nairobi. The predominantly agricultural country exports coffee, tea, and petroleum products. ,The Arabs came to the coast of Kenya in the 8th century and established posts to conduct an ivory and slave trade. The Portuguese, the inveterate wanderers of the Age of Exploration, followed in the 16th century. After a lengthy and bitter struggle within the sultans of Zanzibar who controlled much of the southeastern coast of Africa, the Portuguese were driven away (late 17th century) and for many years Kenya was simply a port call on the route to India. German and British interests in the 19th century produced agreements defining their respective spheres of influence. The British sphere was administered by the Imperial East Africa Co. until 1895, when the British government purchased the company?s rights in the East Africa Protectorate which in 1920 was designed as Kenya Colony and protectorate ? the latter being a 10-mile wide coastal strip together with Mombasa, Lamu, and other small islands nominally retained by the Sultan of Zanzibar. Kenya achieved self-government in June of 1963 as a consequence of the 1952-60 Mau Mau terrorist campaign to secure land reforms and political rights for Africans. Independence was attained on December 12, 1963. Kenya became a republic in 1964. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The president is Chief of State and Head of Government.,, ,Notes of the East African Currency Board were in use during the first years.,, Rulers:,,, ,British to 1964,, Monetary System:,,, ,1 Shilling (Shilingi) = 100 Cents,,