The Peoples Republic of Angola, a country on the west coast of southern Africa bounded by Zaire, Zambia and Namibia (South-West Africa), has an area of 481,354 sq. mi. (1,246,700 sq. km.) and a population of 12.78 million, predominately Bantu in origin. Capital: Luanda. Most of the people are engaged in subsistence agriculture. However, important oil and mineral deposits make Angola potentially one of the richest countries in Africa. Iron and diamonds are exported. ,Angola was discovered by Portuguese navigator Diogo Cao in 1482. Portuguese settlers arrived in 1491, and established Angola as a major slaving center which sent about 3 million slaves to the New World.,, ,A revolt against Portuguese rule, characterized by guerilla warfare, began in 1961 and continued until 1974, when regime in Portugal offered independence. The independence movement was actively supported by three groups, the National Front, based in Zaire, the Soviet backed Popular Movement, and the moderate National Union. Independence was proclaimed on Nov. 11, 1975.,, Rulers:,,, ,Portuguese to 1975,, Monetary System:,,, ,1 Milreis = 1000 Reis = 20 Macutas to 1911,, ,100 Centavos ? 1 Escudo, 1911,, ,1 Escudo = 1 Milreis,, ,1 Escudo = 100 Centavos, 1954-77,, ,1 Kwanza Reajustado = 1,000 ?old? Kwanzas, 1995-,, 8,ARMENIA,AM.gif,"The Republic of Armenia (formally the Armenian S.S.R.) is bounded to the north of Georgia, to the east of Azerbaijan and to the south and west by Turkey and Iran. It has an area of 11,490 sq. mi. (29,800 sq. km.) and a population of 3.7 million. Capital: Yerevan. Agriculture including cotton, vineyards and orchards, hydroelectricity, chemicals ? primarily synthetic rubber and fertilizers, and vast mineral deposits of copper, zinc and aluminum and production of steel and paper are major industries. ,The earliest history of Armenia records continuous struggles with Babylonia and later Assyria. In the sixth century B.C. it was called Armina. Later under the Persian empire it was a vassal state. Conquered by Macedonia, it later defeated the Seleucids and thus Greater Armenia was founded under the Artaxis dynasty. Christianity was established in 303 A.D. which led to religious wars with the Persians and Romans who the divided it into two zones of influence. The Arabs succeeded the Sassanids. In 862 A.D. Ashot V was recognized as the ?prince of princes? and established a throne recognized by Baghdad and Constantinople in 886 A.D. The Seljuks overran the whole country and united with Kurdistan which eventually ran the new government. From 1240 A.D. onward the Mongols occupied almost all of western Asia until their downfall in 1375 A.D. when various Kurdish, Armenian and Turkoman independent principalities arose. After the defeat of the Persians in 1516 A.D. the Ottoman Turks gradually took control with Kurdish tribes settling within Armenian lands. In 1605 A.D, the Persians relocated thousands of Armenians as far as India to develop colonies. Persia and the Ottoman Turks were again at war, with the Ottomans once again prevailing. The Ottomans later have obsolute civil authority to a Christian bishop allowing the Armenians free enjoyment of their religion and traditions. ,, ,Russia occupied Armenia in 1801 until the Russo-Turkish war of 1878. British intervention excluded either side from remaining although the Armenians remained more loyal to the Ottoman Turks. In 1894 the Ottoman Turks sent in an expeditionary force of Kurds fearing a revolutionary movement. Large massacres were followed by retaliations, an amnesty was proclaimed which continued to 1916, when Armenia was occupied by Russian forces. From 1917-1918 the Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijanis formed the short-lived Transcaucanism Federal Republic which split into three independent republics on May 26, 1918. Communism developed and in Sept. 1920 the Turks attacked Armenian Republic; the Russians soon followed suit, routing the Turks. On Nov. 29, 1920 Armenia was proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic. On March 12, 1922, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan were combined to form the Transcaucanism Soviet Federated Socialist republic, which on Dec. 30, 1922, became a part of U.S.S.R. On Dec. 5, 1936, the Transcaucanism federation was dissolved and Armenia became a constituent republic of the U.S.S.R.,, ,A new constitution was adopted in April 1978. Elections took place on May 20, 1990. The Supreme Soviet adopted a declaration of sovereignty in Aug. 1991, voting to unite Armenia with Nagorno-Karabakh. This newly constituted Republic of Armenia became independent by popular vote in Sept. 1991. It joined the CIS in Dec. 1991.,, ,Fighting between Christians in Armenia and Muslim forces of Azerbaijan escalated in 1992 and continued through early 1994. Each country claimed the Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian ethnic enclave in Azerbaijan. A temporary cease-fire was announced in May 1994.,, Monetary System:,,, ,1 Ruble = 100 Kopeks,, 11,AUSTRIA,au-flag.gif,The Republic of Austria (Oesterreich), a parliamentary democracy located in mountainous central Europe, has an area of 32,374 sq. mi. (88,849 sq. km.) and a population of 8.1 million. Capital: Vienna. Austria is primarily an industrial country. Machinery, iron and steel, textiles, yarns and timber are exported. ,The territories later to be known as Austria were overrun in pre-Roman times by various tribes, including the Celts. Upon the fall of the Roman Empire, the country became a margravate of Charlemagnes?s Empire. Premysl 2 Otakar, King of Bohemia, gained possession in 1252, only to lose the territory to Rudolf of Habsburg in 1276. Thereafter, until World War I, the story of Austria was that of the ruling Habsburgs, Holy Roman emperors from 1438-1806. From 1815-1867 it was a member of the Deutsche Bund (German Union).,, ,During World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was one of the Central Powers with Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. At the end of the war, the empire was dissolved and Austria established as an independent republic. In March 1938, Austria was incorporated into Germany?s Third Reich. Allied forces of both East and West liberated Austria in April 1945, and subsequently divided it into four zones of military occupation. On May 15, 1955, the four powers formally recognized Austria as a sovereign independent democratic state.,, Rulers:,,, ,Maria Theresa, 1740-1780,, ,Joseph II, jointly with his Mother, 1765-1780 alone, 1780-1790,, ,Leopold II, 1790-1792,, ,Franz II (I), 1792-1835 (as Franz II, 1792-1806) (as Franz I, 1806-1835),, ,Ferdinand I, 1835-1848,, ,Franz Joseph, 1848-1916,, ,Karl I, 1916-1918,, Monetary System:,,, ,1 Gulden = 60 Kreutzer, 1754-1857,, ,1 Gulden = (Florin) =100 Kreutzer, 1857-1892,, ,1 Crone = 100 Heller, 1892-1924,, ,1 Schilling = 100 Groschen, 1924-1938, 1945-2002,,

ANGOLA P-106 UNC, 10-6-1973, 100 ESCUDOS, PALM ON BACK, PURPLE,' 15 Front Side Back Side