The Republic of Finland, the second most northerly state of the European continent, has an area of 130,120 sq. mi. (337,009 sq. km.) and a population of 5.18 million. Capital: Helsinki. Electrical/optical equipment, shipbuilding, metal and woodworking are the leading industries. Paper, wood pulp, plywood and telecommunication equipment are exported. ,The Finns, who probably originated in the Volga region if Russia, took Finland from the Lapps late in the 7th century. They were conquered in the 12th century by Eric IX of Sweden, and brought into contact with Western Christendom. In 1809, Sweden was invaded by Alexander I of Russia, and the peace terms gave Finland to Russia. It became a grand duchy within the Russian Empire until Dec. 6, 1917, when, shortly after the Bolshevik revolution, it declared its independence. After a brief but bitter civil war between the Russian sympathizers and Finnish nationalist in which the Whites (nationalists) were victorious, a new constitution was adopted, and on Dec. 6, 1917 Finland was established as a republic. In 1939 Soviet troops invaded Finland over disputed territorial concessions which were later granted in the peace treaty of 1940. When the Germans invaded Russia, Finland also became involved and in the Armistice of 1944 lost the Petsamo area also to the USSR.,, Rulers:, ,Gustar III, 1771-1792, of Sweden ,Gustar IV Adolph, 1792-1809 ,Alexander I, 1809-1825, of Russia ,Nicholas I, 1825-1855 ,Alexander II, 1855-1881 ,Alexander III, 1881-1894 ,Nicholas II, 1894-1917 Monetary System:, ,(With Sweden to 1809) ,1 Ragsdale Specie = 48 Skilling Specie ,(With Russia 1809-1917) ,1 Ruble = 100 Kopeks, 1809-1860 ,1 Markka = 100 Pennies, 1860-1963,, ,1 Markka = 100 ?Old? Markkaa, 1963-2001,,